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Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, Texas, United States, on the Southern Plains of the state's western area. A small portion of the city extends into Martin County.

At the 2010 census, the population of Midland was 111,147, and a 2019 estimate gave a total of 146,038, making it the twenty-fourth most populous city in the state of Texas. Due to the oil boom in Midland, certain officials have given population estimates above 155,000. It is the principal city of the Midland, Texas metropolitan statistical area, which includes all of Midland County, the population of which grew 4.6 percent, between July 1, 2011 and July 1, 2012, to 151,662, respectively, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. The metropolitan area is also a component of the larger MidlandOdessa combined statistical area, which had an estimated population of 295,987 on July 1, 2012. People in Midland are called Midlanders.

Midland was founded as the midway point between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railroad in 1881. It is the hometown of former First Lady Laura Bush, and the onetime home of former Presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, and former First Lady Barbara Bush.

Midland was established in June 1881 as Midway Station, on the Texas and Pacific Railway. It earned its name because of its central location between Fort Worth and El Paso, but because there were already other towns in Texas by the name of Midway, the city changed its name to Midland in January 1884 when it was granted its first Post Office.

Midland became the county seat of Midland County in March 1885, when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County.

By 1890, it had become one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state. The city was incorporated in 1906, and by 1910 the city established its first fire department, along with a new water system.

Midland was changed significantly by the discovery of oil in the Permian Basin in 1923 when the Santa Rita No. 1 well began producing in Reagan County, followed shortly by the Yates Oil Field in Iraan. Soon, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the West Texas oil fields. During the Second World War, Midland was the largest bombardier training base in the country. A second boom period began after the war, with the discovery and development of the Spraberry Trend, still ranked as the third-largest oil field in the United States by total reserves. Yet another boom period took place during the 1970s, with the high oil prices associated with the oil and energy crises of that decade. Today, the Permian Basin produces one fifth of the nation's total petroleum and natural gas output.

Midland's economy still relies heavily on petroleum; however, the city has also diversified to become a regional telecommunications and distribution center. By August 2006, a busy period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were almost 2,000 more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them.

John Howard Griffin wrote a history of Midland in 1959, Land of the High Sky.

Avery v. Midland County
In 1967, the U.S. Supreme Court heard the case of Avery v. Midland County. Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County, challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioner's Court. The county districts geographically quartered the county, but the city of Midland, in the northwestern quarter, accounted for 97% of the county's population. A judge, elected on an at-large basis, provided a fifth vote, but the result was that the three rural commissioners, representing only three percent of the county's population, held a majority of the votes.

The majority of the U.S. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection clause. The dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Court's policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Court's constitutional authority.

Geography
Midland is located in the Permian Basin in the plains of West Texas.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 71.5 square miles (185.2 km2), of which 71.3 square miles (184.7 km2) is land and 0.2 square mile (0.5 km2) (0.28%) is water.

Climate
Midland features a semi-arid climate (K?ppen BSh or BSk) with hot summers and cool to mild winters. The city is occasionally subject to cold waves during the winter, but it rarely sees extended periods of below-freezing cold. Midland receives approximately 14.6 inches (370 mm) of precipitation per year, much of which falls in the summer. Highs exceed 90 F (32 C) on 101 days per year, and 100 F (38 C) on 16 days.

Climate data for Midland, Texas (19812010 normals, extremes 1930present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high F (C) 84
(29) 92
(33) 97
(36) 104
(40) 108
(42) 116
(47) 112
(44) 113
(45) 107
(42) 101
(38) 90
(32) 85
(29) 116
(47)
Mean maximum F (C) 76.4
(24.7) 81.2
(27.3) 87.4
(30.8) 93.8
(34.3) 100.7
(38.2) 103.4
(39.7) 102.5
(39.2) 101.3
(38.5) 97.4
(36.3) 91.5
(33.1) 82.4
(28.0) 76.5
(24.7) 105.5
(40.8)
Average high F (C) 57.4
(14.1) 62.4
(16.9) 70.2
(21.2) 79.1
(26.2) 87.6
(30.9) 93.3
(34.1) 94.6
(34.8) 93.6
(34.2) 86.9
(30.5) 77.9
(25.5) 66.6
(19.2) 58.1
(14.5) 77.3
(25.2)
Daily mean F (C) 43.9
(6.6) 48.5
(9.2) 55.6
(13.1) 64.2
(17.9) 73.5
(23.1) 80.3
(26.8) 82.2
(27.9) 81.2
(27.3) 74.5
(23.6) 64.9
(18.3) 52.9
(11.6) 44.4
(6.9) 63.8
(17.7)
Average low F (C) 30.3
(?0.9) 34.5
(1.4) 41.0
(5.0) 49.3
(9.6) 59.5
(15.3) 67.3
(19.6) 69.7
(20.9) 68.8
(20.4) 62.0
(16.7) 51.8
(11.0) 39.2
(4.0) 30.8
(?0.7) 50.3
(10.2)
Mean minimum F (C) 16.4
(?8.7) 18.6
(?7.4) 23.4
(?4.8) 32.8
(0.4) 45.0
(7.2) 57.6
(14.2) 63.6
(17.6) 62.1
(16.7) 47.9
(8.8) 35.6
(2.0) 23.1
(?4.9) 16.3
(?8.7) 11.4
(?11.4)
Record low F (C) ?8
(?22) ?11
(?24) 9
(?13) 20
(?7) 32
(0) 47
(8) 49
(9) 52
(11) 36
(2) 16
(?9) 10
(?12) ?1
(?18) ?11
(?24)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.56
(14) 0.76
(19) 0.66
(17) 0.67
(17) 1.74
(44) 1.80
(46) 1.95
(50) 1.84
(47) 1.92
(49) 1.85
(47) 0.83
(21) 0.69
(18) 14.58
(370)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 2.5
(6.4) 0.8
(2.0) 0.3
(0.76) 0.1
(0.25) 0.0
(0.0) 0.0
(0.0) 0.0
(0.0) 0.0
(0.0) 0.0
(0.0) 0.0
(0.0) 0.9
(2.3) 2.1
(5.3) 5.8
(15)
Average precipitation days (? 0.01 in.) 3.6 3.8 3.6 2.9 5.6 4.8 4.9 5.7 5.4 4.9 3.0 3.7 51.7
Average snowy days (? 0.1 in.) 1.4 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 1.0 3.7
Source: NOAA
Cityscape
See also: Category:Buildings and structures in Midland, Texas
Nicknamed "The Tall City", Midland has long been known for its downtown skyline. Most of downtown Midland's major office buildings were built during a time of major Permian Basin oil and gas discoveries. The surge in energy prices in the mid-1980s sparked a building boom for downtown Midland. For many years, the 22-story Wilco Building in downtown Midland was the tallest building between Fort Worth and Phoenix. Today, the tallest is the 24-story Bank of America Building, which stands at a height of 332 feet (101 m). Four buildings over 500 feet (150 m) tall were planned in the 1980s, including one designed by architect I.M. Pei. The great oil bust of the mid-1980s killed any plans for future skyscrapers. A private development group was planning to build Energy Tower at City Center, which was proposed to stand at 870 feet tall with 59 floors (six floors underground and 53 above). If it had been built, it would have been Texas' sixth tallest building.

Rank Name Height
ft / m Floors Year Notes
1 Bank of America Building 332 /101 24 1978 The building has been the tallest building in the city since 1978.
2 Wilco Building 308 / 94 22 1958 The Wilco Building was, for many years, the tallest building between Ft. Worth and Phoenix. After the Bank of America Building was constructed, the Wilco Building became the second-tallest in the city.
3 Centennial Tower 191 / 58 15 1978 Centennial Tower is located in Centennial Plaza in downtown Midland. It currently stands as the third-tallest building in the city.
4 Independence Plaza 16 1984 Independence Plaza is a large office building located in the heart of downtown Midland. It currently stands as the fourth-tallest building in the city.

Downtown



Summit Building (center) and Wilco Building (background)



Petroleum Building, with Centennial Tower on right



City Hall



Kinder Morgan Building



Downtown Doubletree Hotel



Yucca Theater at the Petroleum Building



First Presbyterian Church



Downtown from Ohio Avenue

Demographics
Historical population
Census Pop. %
1910 2,192
1920 1,795 ?18.1%
1930 5,484 205.5%
1940 9,352 70.5%
1950 21,713 132.2%
1960 62,625 188.4%
1970 59,463 ?5.0%
1980 70,525 18.6%
1990 89,443 26.8%
2000 94,996 6.2%
2010 111,147 17.0%
Est. 2019 146,038 31.4%
U.S. Census Bureau Texas Almanac
At the 2010 census, 111,149 people, 41,268 households, and 32,607 families resided in Midland. The population density was 1,558.9 people per square mile (550.6/km2). There were 47,562 housing units at an average density of 667.1 per square mile (231.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 75.51% White, 8.37% African American, 0.63% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 12.49% from other races, and 1.96% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 28.99% of the population.

Of the 41,268 households, 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were opposite-sex married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.3% were made up of same-sex relationships, non-family habitations, or other habitation arrangements . About 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.19.

In the city, the population was distributed as 29.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.

In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $39,320, and for a family was $48,290. Males had a median income of $37,566 versus $24,794 for females. The per capita income for the city in 2007 was $52,294. In 2000, about 10.1% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 8.0% of those age 65 or over.

In 2014, Forbes magazine ranked Midland as the second fastest-growing small city in the United States.

Economy
In 2014, Midland had the lowest unemployment rate in the United States at 2.3%. According to the city's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top ten employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Midland Independent School District 2,919
2 Dawson Geophysical 1,244
3 Midland Memorial Hospital and Medical Center 1,670
4 Walmart 950
5 City of Midland 880
6 Midland College 735
7 Baker Hughes 600
8 Warren Equipment Companies 597
9 Midland County 541
10 Concho Resources 509
Oil and gas
Midland County has a lot of oil & gas activity, ranking second in the state for production by BOE. As of October 2019, the county has 8,882 active wells producing, on average, 1,603 BOE of oil and gas. In total, over 161.4 million barrels of oil and more than 3.7 million mcf of natural gas were produced in 2019.

Arts and culture
Galleries
Midland College is home to the McCormick Gallery, located inside the Allison Fine Arts Building, on the college's main campus. Throughout the year, changing exhibits at the McCormick feature works of MC students and faculty, visiting artists, and juried exhibits. The Arts Council of Midland serves as the promotional and public relations vehicle to promote the arts and stimulate community participation and support. The McCormick is also home to the Studio 3600 Series, established in 2006 to "spotlight selected art students and provide them the opportunity to exhibit key works that identify the style they have crafted over a period of time."

Performing arts
The Midland-Odessa Symphony and Chorale (MOSC) has performed in the Permian Basin for over 45 years, and is the region's largest orchestral organization, presenting both Pops and Masterworks concerts throughout the year. The MOSC also is home to three resident chamber ensembles, the Lone Star Brass, Permian Basin String Quartet and West Texas Winds. These ensembles are made up of principal musicians in the orchestra.


Barbara Bush, Laura Bush, George H. W. Bush at the dedication of the George W. Bush Childhood Home in 2006

Bush Home, 2014
The Midland Community Theatre (MCT) originated in 1946 with musicals, comedies, dramas, mysteries, children's theatre and melodramas. MCT produces 15 shows each year in three performance spaces Davis Theatre I and Mabee Theatre II, located in the Cole Theatre, and the annual fundraiser Summer Mummers in the Yucca Theatre. MCT is a member of the American Association of Community Theatre, and hosted the 2006 AACT International Theatrefest.

Twice each year, the Phyllis and Bob Cowan Performing Arts Series at Midland College presents free cultural and artistic performances. The series was endowed in 1999.

Libraries
Midland County Library
Haley Memorial Library and History Center
Murray L. Fasken Learning Resource Center at Midland College
Tourism

Permian Basin Petroleum Museum
Sitting on the southern edge of the Llano Estacado and located near the center of the Permian Basin oil fields, Midland's economy has long been focused on petroleum exploration and extraction. Providing more information about this industry is the Permian Basin Petroleum Museum, located on the outskirts of town near Interstate 20. The museum houses numerous displays on the history, science, and technology of oil and gas development. The Permian Basin Petroleum Museum houses a collection of race cars designed by Jim Hall, a long time Midland resident who pioneered the use of aerodynamic downforce in the design of Formula One cars.

Midland is also home to The Museum of the Southwest. The museum features a collection of paintings by various members of the Taos Society of Artists and Karl Bodmer as well as engravings by John J. and John W. Audubon. Located within the same museum complex are the separate Children's Museum and the Marian W. Blakemore Planetarium. The Museum of the Southwest is housed in the Turner Mansion, the historic 1934 home of Fred and Juliette Turner.

On display at the Midland County Historical Museum are reproductions of the "Midland Man," the skeleton of a Clovis female found near the city in 1953. Analysis of the remains by Dr. Curtis R. McKinney using uranium-thorium analysis showed that the bones are 11,600 800 years old. Presenting his findings at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in 1992, Dr. McKinney said, "he Midland Woman was related to the earliest ancestors of every Indian who lives today, and she is very likely the only representative of those who created the Clovis cultures."

Sports
Midland is home to the Midland RockHounds, a Texas League minor league baseball team. It is the Double-A affiliate of the Oakland Athletics. The Rockhounds have played their home games in Momentum Bank Ballpark since 2002.

West Texas United Sockers is an American soccer team founded in 2008. The team is a member of the United Soccer Leagues Premier Development League (PDL), the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, in the Mid South Division of the Southern Conference. The team plays its home games at the Grande Communications Stadium.

Midland is home to the West Texas Drillers (Adult Tackle Football) of the Minor Professional Football League. They were established in 2009. They play their home games at Grande Communications Stadium.

Midland College is a member of the Western Junior College Athletic Conference, and fields teams in baseball, men's basketball, women's basketball, men's golf, softball and volleyball. Midland College has won 20 national championships in sports since 1975, as well as produced 192 All-Americans.

Plans have been made to develop a 35 court tennis facility named the Bush Tennis Center.

Midland is also home to the Midland Mad Dog Rugby Club, which competes in the Texas Rugby Union as a division III team.

Government
Local government

The former Midland County Courthouse on Wall Street, looking north from Midland Doubletree towers
According to the city's 2008 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's various funds had $57.3 million in revenues, $53.0 million in expenditures, $363.4 million in total assets, $133.9 million in total liabilities, and $75.0 million in cash and investments.

List of mayors of Midland, Texas
State and federal representation
On the federal level, Midland residents are represented in the US Senate by John Cornyn and Ted Cruz, and in the US House of Representatives by Mike Conaway. Midland residents are represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Kel Seliger, District 31. Midland is represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Tom Craddick, the former Speaker from District 82.

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the headquarters of Parole Division Region V in Midland; the Midland District Parole Office is in the Region V headquarters.

The United States Postal Service operates the Midland Main Post Office on the grounds of Midland International Air and Space Port. The other four post offices are Claydesta, Downtown Midland, Graves, and Village.

Education
Colleges and universities
Midland is the home of Midland College (MC), which offers over 50 programs of study for associate degrees and certificates to more than 6,000 students who enroll each semester. MC offers programs in health sciences, information technology, and aviation, including a professional pilot training program. MC is one of only three community colleges in Texas approved to offer a bachelor's degree in applied technology. Dr. Steve Thomas is MC's current president.

The city is also less than 20 miles away from UTPB which is in Odessa. It is part of the University of Texas System.

Midland is also the home for the physician assistant program offered by the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Permian Basin Campus located on the campus of Midland College. The entry-level graduate program awards a master of physician assistant studies following 27 months of intensive academic and clinical training.

Visiting lectures
Twice each year, the Davidson Distinguished Lectures Series at Midland College presents free public lectures by "nationally-known speakers whose academic accomplishments, civic leadership, and/or public achievements interest, enrich, and enlighten Midland students and citizens." The series was endowed in 1996, and has since brought a diverse selection of speakers to Midland, including Ken Burns, Richard Leakey, Bill Moyers, Mark Russell, Sandra Day O'Connor, Richard Rodriguez, Shelby Foote, Anna Deavere Smith, Bill Nye, John Updike and Neil deGrasse Tyson.

Schools
Midland is the home to three local public high schools: Midland High School, Robert E. Lee High School and Early College High School (ECHS) at Midland College, all three of which are part of the Midland Independent School District. Another school district is located just outside of Midland, Greenwood Independent School District, containing Greenwood High and a middle and elementary school.

In late July 2020 the Midland School District will conduct a vote on whether to change the name of Robert Lee High School in the wake of the George Floyd protests.

ECHS welcomed its first freshman class on August 24, 2009. The goal for ECHS is to award students their associate degrees from Midland College by the time they receive their high school diplomas.

Also, there are many private schools in Midland, including Hillcrest School, Hillander, Midland Classical Academy, Midland Christian School, Midland Montessori, St. Ann's School, and Trinity School of Midland, among others. Midland is also home to three charter schools: Richard Milburn Academy, Premier High School, and Midland Academy Charter School.

Media
See also: List of newspapers in Texas, List of radio stations in Texas, and List of television stations in Texas
Newspapers
Midland is served by the Midland Reporter-Telegram.

Radio
KLFB 88.1 FM (Religious)
KFRI 88.7 FM (Christian Contemporary)
KBMM 89.5 FM (Religious)
KLVW 90.5 FM (Christian Contemporary)
KVDG 90.9 FM (Spanish)
KXWT 91.3 FM (Public Radio)
WJFM 91.7 FM (Gospel Music)
KNFM 92.3 FM (Country)
KZBT 93.3 FM (Hip-Hop)
KACD 94.1 FM (Spanish)
KTXO 94.7 FM (Country)
KQRX 95.1 FM (Rock)
KMRK-FM 96.1 FM (Country)
KMCM 96.9 FM (Oldies)
KODM 97.9 FM (Adult Contemporary)
KHKX 99.1 FM (Country)
KMTH 99.5 FM (Public Radio)
KBAT 99.9 FM (Rock)
KMMZ 101.3 FM (Regional Mexican)
KFZX 102.1 FM (Classic Rock)
KCRS 103.3 FM (Top-40)
KTXC 104.7 FM (Regional Mexican)
KCHX 106.7 FM (Adult Contemporary)
KWEL 107.1 FM (Talk)
KQLM 107.9 FM (Spanish)
KCRS 550 AM (News/Talk)
KXOI 810 AM (Spanish)
KFLB 920 AM (Religious)
KWEL 1070 AM (Talk)
KLPF 1180 AM (Religious)
KMND 1510 AM (Sports)
Television
Midland is served by nine local television stations: KMID, an ABC affiliate; KWES-TV, an NBC affiliate; KOSA, a CBS affiliate and a MyNetworkTV affiliate on their digital cable TV station; KPEJ-TV, a Fox affiliate; KPBT-TV, a PBS affiliate; KWWT, a MeTV affiliate; KUPB, a Univision affiliate; and KTLE-LD, a Telemundo affiliate. It also has one local religious television station: KMLM-DT, a God's Learning Channel affiliate, which is a worldwide institution offering pro-Israel programming.

Many major motion pictures have been filmed in and around Midland, including Hangar 18, Waltz Across Texas, Fandango, Blood Simple, Hard Country, Friday Night Lights, The Rookie, The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, Everybody's Baby: The Rescue of Jessica McClure (which featured, as extras, many participants in the actual rescue and its coverage), and others.

In the Heroes television series, the Midland-Odessa area is a focal point for many of the first season's episodes, serving as the home for the Bennet family, and as the location of a recurring restaurant, the Burnt Toast Diner.

Infrastructure
Transportation
Air
Midland is served by Midland International Air and Space Port (ICAO code: KMAF, IATA code: MAF), which is located between Odessa and Midland.
Midland Airpark (ICAO code: KMDD, IATA code: MDD) is a general aviation airport located on Midland's northeast side.
Highways and Roads
I-20 (Interstate 20)
Bus. I-20 (Wall Street/Front Street/Former US 80)
SH 140 (Florida Street)
SH 158 (Garden City Highway)
SH 191 (Highway 191/Sgt. Mike Naylor Memorial Highway)
SH 349 (Big Spring Street)
Loop 40
Loop 250
Loop 268 (Wall Street)
FM 868 (Midland Drive)
Rail
Midland was the site of the 2012 Midland train crash, in which a train collided with a parade float carrying wounded military veterans, killing four.

Midland also has citywide public bus services provided for the Midland-Odessa Urban Transit District by Midland-Odessa Transit Management, otherwise known as E-Z Rider.

Notable people
Main article: List of people from Midland, Texas
Sister cities
Midland has four sister cities around the world.

Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)
Dongying, Shandong (China), located near China's second-largest known oil field. A modest pagoda, located at the Beal Complex, was donated by Dongying officials.
New Amsterdam (Guyana)
Wirral (United Kingdom)
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